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Test results TkeyNet, release date, and the opening of an office in the UK.

Test results TkeyNet, release date, and the opening of an office in the UK.

https://preview.redd.it/o29r0qu664j51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=b34a6841ca97bbd70c9a23fe5ed83813d5f513d1
Hello everyone! Today we will talk about the results of the development of the TkeyNet system and related products, as well as share the test results and release date.
To date, the Protocol has fully debugged. The process of debugging the TkeyNet system is moving with decisive steps — 94.7% of testing of all the functions that TkeyNet includes has completed.
During the tests, the following properties and functions tested with different scenarios:
  • Atomic exchanges;
  • Security;
  • Validation;
  • Interaction of the Protocol with SQLite and PostgreSQL databases;
  • Consensus;
  • Modules for financial institutions;
  • Data exchange in the network;
  • Synchronization;
  • The monitoring system of balance;
  • Transactions that include trades;
  • API;
  • TkeyIndex;
  • TkeyConnect.
Documentation for the TkeyNet system will release on the website tkey.org as well as reviews of the system TkeyNet will be published in the company’s blog.
Back-end TkeyNet developed in the C++ and C) programming languages, to improve performance, some of the code written in C.
The C programming language is the world’s fastest high-level programming language. It is called a high-level assembler, but unlike an assembler, code on it can be compile without changes on any device.
The specified stack is selected to meet the stringent requirements of the financial sector: enhanced security, scalability, and the ability of the system to work 24/7/365. The TkeyNet system is adapted to the world standards: ISO, ISIN.

https://preview.redd.it/x9g2rlz864j51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=b2cf80ee5cd722abdb306803d6454e2afde899b0
TkeyNet supports the structured query language and interacts with flexible SQLite and PostgreSQL databases.
PostgreSQL complies with ANSI/ISO SQL standards, and unlike other DBMSs, it has object-oriented functionality, including full support for the ACID concept. An SQLite was selected to improve the speed and performance of operations. SQLite will also serve as an excellent solution for mobile applications that will be created based on TkeyNet.
PostgreSQL is the most advanced RDBMS, focusing primarily on full compliance with standards and extensibility.
During this period, we also completed work on a powerful API. The API is designed for organizations and developers to use the full power of TkeyNet in individual solutions. Software developers, whether mobile apps or local software, will get APIs and client libraries that will simplify the interaction of the corporate market with TkeyNet.
The API provides guaranteed availability, scalable volumes, and responds within milliseconds.

Test results: transaction and operation speed in TkeyNet

To date, testing shows excellent results on the speed of payments made via TkeyNet.
Last week’s results: unlike the first Protocol, where it took at least 10 minutes to validate a transaction, payment transactions in TkeyNet processed in 25 seconds without losing security properties. Performance improved by 2400% compared to Core 1.0

The block generation time in Core 1.0 is at least 10 minutes, and in TkeyNet — 25 seconds according to the test results.
If it took at least 10 minutes to confirm a block, and sometimes it took two or more hours, in TkeyNet developers achieved a stable indicator of 25 seconds without losing security properties.
To achieve our goal of launching the Protocol — we identify possible changes, theorize solutions, model proposals, and test our theories in practice. This process involves a lot of internal discussions and collaboration with external parties who provide feedback on the operation of a particular module, and the entire system as a whole.
Before the launch of TkeyNet, work will carry out to optimize and improve performance. The team plans to increase its performance indicators by 6000% compared to Core 1.0.

The Core 1.0 block generation time is 10 minutes. TkeyNet test network — 25 seconds. TkeyNet main network-up to 10 seconds.
To do this, we will work with individual modules and libraries of databases, transactions, and consensus. The goal for developers is to process payment transactions for up to 10 seconds at most.
The process secure in the logic of consensus, which solves a complex problem in a matter of seconds.

High throughput rates of the TkeyNet Protocol. B2B & B2C sectors.

To meet the needs of companies, startups, and corporations, — TkeyNet responds with fast processing of trades*.
Payment transactions — exchange of currency or shares, exchange operations, interbank settlements, etc.
For a better understanding, let’s analyze the obtained characteristics at the time of testing TkeyNet:

https://preview.redd.it/t31c3kih64j51.png?width=466&format=png&auto=webp&s=daad005d8cd5066e9d3cb67e9f147d0a7b362d97
Results: 1,225,000 trades per block.
https://preview.redd.it/gerxtesi64j51.png?width=472&format=png&auto=webp&s=e0b96995b7d6fbede61fe7761a55005ec20de403

The scaling of the TkeyNet system

The TkeyNet system is easily scalable by increasing the RAM and CPU parameters. We have launched three nodes on powerful servers with the following characteristics:
  • CPU: 72 Core.
  • RAM: 144 Gb.
  • SSD: 120 Gb.
Transaction throughput increased 2.8 times to ≈3,430,000 transactions per block.

https://preview.redd.it/mvot6c3l64j51.png?width=617&format=png&auto=webp&s=23f4ea57f30fd6978568d12948c0ecb571f2f071

Vertical scaling

Unlike Bitcoin and other blockchain systems, where increasing the power of the miner’s hardware does not lead to an increase in network bandwidth.
Usually in such networks, increasing the power is a direct necessity, otherwise, transactions will not take place at all or will take hours, or even days. Because of what actually appears “manipulation of miners” and various types of network attacks.
On practice in such networks, increasing power is a direct necessity otherwise, transactions will not take place at all or will take hours or even days. Therefore of what appears “manipulation of miners” and various types of network attacks.
TkeyNet uses vertical scaling. With increasing node capacity, the throughput of the entire TkeyNet system increases. It turns out that regardless of the number and power of nodes, transactions will take place in 25 seconds, and with increasing power nodes — the number of processed transactions will grow.
As we said above, our developers are working to improve these indicators, where the block validation time will take no more than 10 seconds. Transactions will take place for 1 second to 10 seconds maximum. Also, this parameter significantly increases the volume of trades conducted via TkeyNet.

Front-end. Graphical user interface.


https://preview.redd.it/wrjfa95n64j51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=a5137fac7774864fab431fdd7ac51c73ffca3075
During August, the web products team continues working on secure wallets and a blockchain Explorer. The new software is under development, but it has already come a long way from layouts and graphic design and is ready to move to the stage of connecting the TkeyNet back-end with native products. If everything is in the final stage on the back-end side, then the client part (front-end*) needs time to complete debugging. We needed to design applications per best security practices.
\The Front-end developer creates the user interface.* Testing of blockchain applications is not much different from testing regular applications and resembles functional testing of a payment system. Test cases include checking the balance, fields, transaction statuses, and so on.
Also, we conduct continuous testing during development, taking into account the severity and scale of the TkeyNet system that will be used by organizations, corporations, and users, respectively. According to the results of testing and a meeting of the development team, the launch of TkeyNet is agreed for September 25–mid-October, possibly earlier.
Website tkey.org — will be updated in October 2020, taking into account the volume of documentation, packaging all the meanings of the perfect new product TkeyNet. Tkeycoin.com — updated earlier, before launching TkeyNet.
Also, to the upcoming launch of TkeyNet, the management decided to open a representative office of TKEY in the UK for the development of digital Banking and digitalization of assets.
Working with partners in the UK will focus on implementing TKEY’s corporate strategy and market solutions that meet customer needs, create new revenue sources, and provide opportunities for Corporations growth.
We create a great future for people by continuously improving our services and business products. All our actions are concentrate on becoming a leader in the market.
We also remind you that after the launch of TkeyNet, the start date of TKey trading will announce.
The fourth quarter will be hot, get ready!
https://i.redd.it/ynv5xknq64j51.gif
submitted by tkeycoin to Tkeycoin_Official [link] [comments]

Mining and Dogecoin - Some FAQs

Hey shibes,
I see a lot of posts about mining lately and questions about the core wallet and how to mine with it, so here are some facts!
Feel free to add information to that thread or correct me if I did any mistake.

You downloaded the core wallet

Great! After a decade it probably synced and now you are wondering how to get coins? Bad news: You don't get coins by running your wallet, even running it as a full node. Check what a full node is here.
Maybe you thought so, because you saw a very old screenshot of a wallet, like this (Version 1.2). This version had a "Dig" tab where you can enter your mining configuration. The current version doesn't have this anymore, probably because it doesn't make sense anymore.

You downloaded a GPU/CPU miner

Nice! You did it, even your antivirus system probably went postal and you started covering all your webcams... But here is the bad news again: Since people are using ASIC miners, you just can't compete with your CPU hardware anymore. Even with your more advanced GPU you will have a hard time. The hashrate is too high for a desktop PC to compete with them. The blocks should be mined every 1 minute (or so) and that's causing the difficulty to go up - and we are out... So definitly check what is your hashrate while you are mining, you would need about 1.5 MH/s to make 1 Doge in 24 hours!

Mining Doge

Let us start with a quote:
"Dogecoin Core 1.8 introduces AuxPoW from block 371,337. AuxPoW is a technology which enables miners to submit work done while mining other coins, as work on the Dogecoin block chain."
- langerhans
What does this mean? You could waste your hashrate only on the Dogecoin chain, probably find never a block, but when, you only receive about 10.000 Dogecoins, currently worth about $25. Or you could apply your hashrate to LTC and Doge (and probably even more) at the same time. Your change of solving the block (finding the nonce) is your hashrate divided by the hashrat in sum - and this is about the same for Doge and LTC. This means you will always want to submit your work to all chains available!

Mining solo versus pool

So let's face it - mining solo won't get you anywhere, so let's mine on a pool! If you have a really bad Hashrate, please consider that: Often you need about $1 or $2 worth of crypto to receive a payout (without fees). This means, you have to get there. With 100 MH/s on prohashing, it takes about 6 days, running 24/7 to get to that threshold. Now you can do the math... 1 MH/s = 1000 KH/s, if you are below 1 MH/s, you probably won't have fun.

Buying an ASIC

You found an old BTC USB-miner with 24 GH/s (1 GH/s = 1000 MH/s) for $80 bucks - next stop lambo!? Sorry, bad news again, this hashrate is for SHA-256! If you want to mine LTC/Doge you will need a miner using scrypt with quite lower numbers on the hashrate per second, so don't fall for that. Often when you have a big miner (= also loud), you get more Hashrate per $ spent on the miner, but most will still run on a operational loss, because the electricity is too expensive and the miners will be outdated soon again. Leading me to my next point...

Making profit

You won't make money running your miner. Just do the math: What if you would have bougth a miner 1 year ago? Substract costs for electricity and then compare to: What if you just have bought coins. In most cases you would have a greater profit by just buying coins, maybe even with a "stable" coin like Doges.

Cloud Mining

Okay, this was a lot of text and you are still on the hook? Maybe you are desperated enough to invest in some cloud mining contract... But this isn't a good idea either, because most of such contracts are scams based on a ponzi scheme. You often can spot them easy, because they guarantee way to high profits, or they fake payouts that never happened, etc.
Just a thought: If someone in a subway says to you: Give me $1 and lets meet in one year, right here and I give you $54,211,841, you wouldn't trust him and if some mining contract says they will give you 5% a day it is basically the same.
Also rember the merged mining part. Nobody would offer you to mine Doges, they would offer you to buy a hashrate for scrypt that will apply on multiple chains.

Alternative coins

Maybe try to mine a coin where you don't have ASICs yet, like Monero and exchange them to Doge. If somebody already tried this - feel free to add your thoughts!

Folding at Home (Doge)

Some people say folding at home (FAH - https://www.dogecoinfah.com/) still the best. I just installed the tool and it says I would make 69.852 points a day, running on medium power what equates to 8 Doges. It is easy, it was fun, but it isn't much.
Thanks for reading
_nformant
submitted by _nformant to dogecoin [link] [comments]

hahhaa doom go brrrr

The date was June 10, 2018. The sun was shining, the grass was growing, and the birds were singing. At least, that’s what I assumed. Being a video game and tech obsessed teenager, I was indoors, my eyes glued to my computer monitor like a starving lion spying on a plump gazelle. I was watching the E3 (Electronic Entertainment Expo) 2018 broadcast on twitch.com, a popular streaming website. Video game developers use E3 as an annual opportunity to showcase any upcoming video game projects to the public. So far, the turnout had been disappointing. Much to my disappointment, multiple game developers failed to unveil anything of actual sustenance for an entire two hours. A graphical update here, a bug fix there. Issues that should have been fixed at every game’s initial launch, not a few months after release. Feeling hopeless, I averted my eyes from my computer monitor to check Reddit (a social media app/website) if there were any forum posts that I had yet to see. But then, I heard it. The sound of music composer Mick Gordon’s take on the original “DooM” theme, the awesome combination of metal and electronic music. I looked up at my screen and gasped. Bethesda Softworks and id software had just announced “DOOM: Eternal”, the fifth addition in the “DooM” video game series. “DOOM: Eternal” creative director Hugo Martin promised that the game would feel more powerful than it’s 2016 predecessor, there would be twice as many enemy types, and the doom community would finally get to see “hell on earth”. (Martin) As a fan of “DOOM (2016)”, I was ecstatic. The original “DooM” popularized the “First Person Shooter (FPS)” genre, and I wished I wouldn’t have to wait to experience the most recent entry in the series. “DOOM(1993)” was a graphical landmark when it originally released, yet nowadays it looks extremely dated, especially compared to “DOOM: Eternal”. What advancements in computer technology perpetuated this graphical change? Computers became faster, digital storage increased, and computer peripherals were able to display higher resolution and refresh rates.
“DooM” 1993 graphics example:
📷(Doom | Doom Wiki)
“DOOM: Eternal” graphics example:
📷
(Bailey)
In their video “Evolution Of DOOM”, the video game YouTube Channel “gameranx” says that on December 10, 1993, a file titled “DOOM1_0.zip” was uploaded on the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) server of the University of Wisconsin. This file, two megabytes in size, contained the video game “DooM” created by the game development group “id Software”. (Evolution of DOOM) While not the first game in the “First Person Shooter” (FPS) genre, “DooM” popularized the genre, to the point of any other FPS game being referred to as a “Doom Clone” until the late 1990s. (Doom clones | Doom Wiki) The graphics of the original “DooM” is definitely a major downgrade compared to today’s graphical standards, but keep in mind that the minimum system requirements of “DooM”, according to the article “Doom System Requirements” on gamesystemrequirements.com, was eight megabytes of ram, an Intel Pentium or AMD (Advanced Micro Devices) Athlon 486 processor cycling at sixty-six megahertz or more, and an operating system that was Windows 95 or above. (Doom System Requirements) In case you don’t speak the language of technology (although I hope you learn a thing or two at the end of this essay), the speed and storage capacity is laughable compared to the specifications of today. By 1993, the microprocessor, or CPU (Central Processing Unit) had been active for the past twenty-two years after replacing the integrated circuit in 1971, thanks to the creators of the microprocessor, Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore who were also the founder of CPU manufacturer “Intel”. Gordon Moore also created “Moore’s law”, which states “The number of transistors incorporated in a chip will approximately double every 24 months”. (Moore) Sadly, according to writer and computer builder Steve Blank in his article “The End of More - The Death of Moore’s Law”, this law would end at around 2005, thanks to the basic laws of physics. (Blank) 1993 also marked an important landmark for Intel, who just released the first “Pentium” processor which was capable of a base clock of 60 MHz (megahertz). The term “base clock” refers to the default speed of a CPU. This speed can be adjusted via the user’s specifications, and “MHz” refers to one million cycles per second. A cycle is essentially one or more problems that the computer solves. The more cycles the CPU is running at, the more problems get solved. Intel would continue upgrading their “Pentium” lineup until January 4, 2000 when they would release the “Celeron” processor, with a base clock of 533 MHz. Soon after, on June 19, 2000, rival CPU company AMD would release their “Duron” processor which had a base clock of 600 MHz, with a maximum clock of 1.8 GHz (Gigahertz). One GHz is equal to 1,000 MHz. Intel and AMD had established themselves as the two major CPU companies in the 1970s in Silicon Valley. Both companies had been bitter rivals since then, trading figurative blows in the form of competitive releases, discounts, and “one upmanship” to this day. Moving on to April 21, 2005 when AMD released the first dual-core CPU, the “Athlon 64 X2 3800+”. The notable feature of this CPU, besides a 2.0 GHz base clock and a 3.8 maximum clock, was that it was the first CPU to have two cores. A CPU core is a CPU’s processor. The more cores a CPU has, the more tasks it can perform per cycle, thus maximizing it’s efficiency. Intel wouldn’t respond until January 9, 2006, when they released their dual-core processor, the “Core 2 Duo Processor E6320”, with a base clock of 1.86 GHz. (Computer Processor History) According to tech entrepreneur Linus Sebastian in his YouTube videos “10 Years of Gaming PCs: 2009 - 2014 (Part 1)” and “10 Years of Gaming PCs: 2015 - 2019 (Part 2)”, AMD would have the upper hand over Intel until 2011, when Intel released the “Sandy Bridge” CPU microarchitecture, which was faster and around the same price as AMD’s current competing products. (Sebastian) The article “What is Microarchitecture?” on the website Computer Hope defines microarchitecture as “a hardware implementation of an ISA (instruction set architecture). An ISA is a structure of commands and operations used by software to communicate with hardware. A microarchitecture is the hardware circuitry that implements one particular ISA”. (What is Microarchitecture?) Microarchitecture is also referred to as what generation a CPU belongs to. Intel would continue to dominate the high-end CPU market until 2019, when AMD would “dethrone” Intel with their third generation “Ryzen” CPU lineup. The most notable of which being the “Ryzen 3950x”, which had a total of sixteen cores, thirty-two threads, a base clock of 3.5 GHz, and a maximum clock of 4.7 GHz. (Sebastian) The term “thread” refers to splitting one core into virtual cores, via a process known as “simultaneous multithreading”. Simultaneous multithreading allows one core to perform two tasks at once. What CPU your computer has is extremely influential for how fast your computer can run, but for video games and other types of graphics, there is a special type of processor that is designed specifically for the task of “rendering” (displaying) and generating graphics. This processor unit is known as the graphics processing unit, or “GPU”. The term “GPU” wasn’t used until around 1999, when video cards started to evolve beyond the literal generation of two-dimensional graphics and into the generation of three-dimensional graphics. According to user “Olena” in their article “A Brief History of GPU”, The first GPU was the “GeForce 256”, created by GPU company “Nvidia'' in 1999. Nvidia promoted the GeForce 256 as “A single-chip processor with integrated transform, lighting, triangle setup/clipping, and rendering engines that is capable of processing a minimum of 10 million polygons per second”. (Olena) Unlike the evolution of CPUs, the history of GPUs is more one sided, with AMD playing a game of “catchup” ever since Nvidia overtook AMD in the high-end GPU market in 2013. (Sebastian) Fun fact, GPUs aren’t used only for gaming! In 2010, Nvidia collaborated with Audi to power the dashboards and increase the entertainment and navigation systems in Audi’s cars! (Olena) Much to my (and many other tech enthusiasts), GPUs would increase dramatically in price thanks to the “bitcoin mania” around 2017. This was, according to senior editor Tom Warren in his article “Bitcoin Mania is Hurting PC Gamers By Pushing Up GPU Prices'' on theverge.com, around an 80% increase in price for the same GPU due to stock shortages. (Warren) Just for context, Nvidia’s “flagship” gpu in 2017 was the 1080ti, the finest card of the “pascal” microarchitecture. Fun fact, I have this card. The 1080ti launched for $699, with the specifications of a base clock of 1,481 MHz, a maximum clock of 1,582 MHz, and 11 gigabytes of GDDR5X Vram (Memory that is exclusive to the GPU) according to the box it came in. Compare this to Nvidia’s most recent flagship GPU, the 2080ti of Nvidia’s followup “Turing” microarchitecture, another card I have. This GPU launched in 2019 for $1,199. The 2080ti’s specifications, according to the box it came in included a base clock of 1,350 MHz, a maximum clock of 1,545 MHz, and 11 gigabytes of GDDR6 Vram.
A major reason why “DooM” was so popular and genius was how id software developer John Carmack managed to “fake” the three-dimensional graphics without taking up too much processing power, hard drive space, or “RAM” (Random access memory), a specific type of digital storage. According to the article “RAM (Random Access Memory) Definition” on the website TechTerms, Ram is also known as “volatile” memory, because it is much faster than normal storage (which at the time took the form of hard-drive space), and unlike normal storage, only holds data when the computer is turned on. A commonly used analogy is that Ram is the computer’s short-term memory, storing temporary files to be used by programs, while hard-drive storage is the computer’s long term memory. (RAM (Random Access Memory) Definition) As I stated earlier, in 1993, “DooM” required 8 megabytes of ram to run. For some context, as of 2020, “DOOM: Eternal” requires a minimum of 8 gigabytes of DDR4 (more on this later) ram to run, with most gaming machines possessing 16 gigabytes of DDR4 ram. According to tech journalist Scott Thornton in his article “What is DDR (Double Data Rate) Memory and SDRAM Memory”, in 1993, the popular format of ram was “SDRAM”. “SDRAM” stands for “Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory”. SDRAM differs from its predecessor, “DRAM” (Dynamic Random Access Memory) by being synchronized with the clock speed of the CPU. DRAM was asynchronous (not synchronized by any external influence), which “posted a problem in organizing data as it comes in so it can be queued for the process it’s associated with”. SDRAM was able to transfer data one time per clock cycle, and it’s replacement in the early 2000s, “DDR SDRAM” (Dual Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) was able to transfer data two times per clock cycle. This evolution of ram would continue to this day. In 2003, DDR2 SDRAM was released, able to transfer four pieces of data per clock cycle. In 2007, DDR3 SDRAM was able to transfer eight pieces of data per clock cycle. In 2014, DDR4 SDRAM still was able to transfer eight pieces of data per cycle, but the clock speed had increased by 600 MHz, and the overall power consumption had been reduced from 3.3 volts for the original SDRAM to 1.2 volts for DDR4. (Thornton)The digital size of each “ram stick” (a physical stick of ram that you would insert into your computer) had also increased, from around two megabytes per stick, to up to 128 gigabytes per stick (although this particular option will cost you around $1,000 per stick depending on the manufacturer) in 2020, although the average stick size is 8 gigabytes. For the average computer nowadays, you can insert up to four ram sticks, although for more high-end systems, you can insert up to sixteen or even thirty-two! Rewind back to 1993, where the original “DooM” took up two megabytes of storage, not to be confused with ram. According to tech enthusiast Rex Farrance in their article “Timeline: 50 Years of Hard Drives”, the average computer at this time had around two gigabytes of storage. Storage took the form of magnetic-optical discs, a combination of the previous magnetic discs and optical discs. (Farrance) This format of storage is still in use today, although mainly for large amounts of rarely used data, while data that is commonly used by programs (including the operating system) is put on solid-state drives, or SSDs. According to tech journalist Keith Foote in their article “A Brief History of Data Storage”, SSDs differed from the HDD by being much faster and smaller, storing data on a flash memory chip, not unlike a USB thumb drive. While SSDs had been used as far back as 1950, they wouldn’t find their way into the average gaming machine until the early 2010s. (Foote) A way to think about SSDs is common knowledge. It doesn’t contain every piece of information you know, it just contains what you use on a daily basis. For example, my computer has around 750 gigabytes of storage in SSDs, and around two terabytes of internal HDD storage. On my SSDs, I have my operating system, my favorite programs and games, and any files that I use frequently. On my HDD, I have everything else that I don’t use on a regular basis.
“DOOM: Eternal” would release on March 20, 2020, four months after it’s original release date on November 22, 2019. And let me tell you, I was excited. The second my clock turned from 11:59 P.M. to 12:00 A.M., I repeatedly clicked my refresh button, desperately waiting to see the words “Coming March 20” transform into the ever so beautiful and elegant phrase: “Download Now”. At this point in time, I had a monitor that was capable of displaying roughly two-million pixels spread out over it’s 27 inch display panel, at a rate of 240 times a second. Speaking of monitors and displays, according to the article “The Evolution of the Monitor” on the website PCR, at the time of the original “DooM” release, the average monitor was either a CRT (cathode ray tube) monitor, or the newer (and more expensive) LCD (liquid crystal display) monitor. The CRT monitor was first unveiled in 1897 by the German physicist Karl Ferdinand Braun. CRT monitors functioned by colored cathode ray tubes generating an image on a phosphorescent screen. These monitors would have an average resolution of 800 by 600 pixels and a refresh rate of around 30 frames per second. CRT monitors would eventually be replaced by LCD monitors in the late 2000s. LCD monitors functioned by using two pieces of polarized glass with liquid crystal between them. A backlight would shine through the first piece of polarized glass (also known as substrate). Electrical currents would then cause the liquid crystals to adjust how much light passes through to the second substrate, which creates the images that are displayed. (The Evolution of the Monitor) The average resolution would increase to 1920x1080 pixels and the refresh rate would increase to 60 frames a second around 2010. Nowadays, there are high end monitors that are capable of displaying up to 7,680 by 4,320 pixels, and also monitors that are capable of displaying up to 360 frames per second, assuming you have around $1,000 lying around.
At long last, it had finished. My 40.02 gigabyte download of “DOOM: Eternal” had finally completed, and oh boy, I was ready to experience this. I ran over to my computer, my beautiful creation sporting 32 gigs of DDR4 ram, an AMD Ryzen 7 “3800x” with a base clock of 3.8 GHz, an Nvidia 2080ti, 750 gigabytes of SSD storage and two terabytes of HDD storage. Finally, after two years of waiting for this, I grabbed my mouse, and moved my cursor over that gorgeous button titled “Launch DOOM: Eternal”. Thanks to multiple advancements in the speed of CPUs, the size of ram and storage, and display resolution and refresh rate, “DooM” had evolved from an archaic, pixelated video game in 1993 into the beautiful, realistic and smooth video game it is today. And personally, I can’t wait to see what the future has in store for us.
submitted by Voxel225 to voxelists [link] [comments]

Looking back 18 months.

I was going through old emails today and came across this one I sent out to family on January 4, 2018. It was a reflection on the 2017 crypto bull market and where I saw it heading, as well as some general advice on crypto, investment, and being safe about how you handle yourself in cryptoland.
I feel that we are on the cusp of a new bull market right now, so I thought that I would put this out for at least a few people to see *before* the next bull run, not after. While the details have changed, I don't see a thing in this email that I fundamentally wouldn't say again, although I'd also probably insist that people get a Yubikey and use that for all 2FA where it is supported.
Happy reading, and sorry for some of the formatting weirdness -- I cleaned it up pretty well from the original email formatting, but I love lists and indents and Reddit has limitations... :-/
Also, don't laught at my token picks from January 2018! It was a long time ago and (luckliy) I took my own advice about moving a bunch into USD shortly after I sent this. I didn't hit the top, and I came back in too early in the summer of 2018, but I got lucky in many respects.
----------------------------------------------------------------------- Jan-4, 2018
Hey all!
I woke up this morning to ETH at a solid $1000 and decided to put some thoughts together on what I think crypto has done and what I think it will do. *******, if you could share this to your kids I’d appreciate it -- I don’t have e-mail addresses, and it’s a bit unwieldy for FB Messenger… Hopefully they’ll at least find it thought-provoking. If not, they can use it as further evidence that I’m a nutjob. 😉
Some history before I head into the future.
I first mined some BTC in 2011 or 2012 (Can’t remember exactly, but it was around the Christmas holidays when I started because I had time off from work to get it set up and running.) I kept it up through the start of summer in 2012, but stopped because it made my PC run hot and as it was no longer winter, ********** didn’t appreciate the sound of the fans blowing that hot air into the room any more. I’ve always said that the first BTC I mined was at $1, but looking back at it now, that’s not true – It was around $2. Here’s a link to BTC price history.
In the summer of 2013 I got a new PC and moved my programs and files over before scrapping the old one. I hadn’t touched my BTC mining folder for a year then, and I didn’t even think about salvaging those wallet files. They are now gone forever, including the 9-10BTC that were in them. While I can intellectually justify the loss, it was sloppy and underlines a key thing about cryptocurrency that I believe will limit its widespread adoption by the general public until it is addressed and solved: In cryptoland, you are your own bank, and if you lose your password or account number, there is no person or organization that can help you reset it so that you can get access back. Your money is gone forever.
On April 12, 2014 I bought my first BTC through Coinbase. BTC had spiked to $1000 and been in the news, at least in Japan. This made me remember my old wallet and freak out for a couple of months trying to find it and reclaim the coins. I then FOMO’d (Fear Of Missing Out”) and bought $100 worth of BTC. I was actually very lucky in my timing and bought at around $430. Even so, except for a brief 50% swing up almost immediately afterwards that made me check prices 5 times a day, BTC fell below my purchase price by the end of September and I didn’t get back to even until the end of 2015.
In May 2015 I bought my first ETH at around $1. I sent some guy on bitcointalk ~$100 worth of BTC and he sent me 100 ETH – all on trust because the amounts were small and this was a small group of people. BTC was down in the $250 range at that point, so I had lost 30-40% of my initial investment. This was of the $100 invested, so not that much in real terms, but huge in percentages. It also meant that I had to buy another $100 of BTC on Coinbase to send to this guy. A few months after I purchased my ETH, BTC had doubled and ETH had gone down to $0.50, halving the value of my ETH holdings. I was even on the first BTC purchase finally, but was now down 50% on the ETH I had bought.
The good news was that this made me start to look at things more seriously. Where I had skimmed white papers and gotten a superficial understanding of the technology before FOMO’ing, I started to act as an investor, not a speculator. Let me define how I see those two different types of activity:
So what has been my experience as an investor? After sitting out the rest of 2015 because I needed to understand the market better, I bought into ETH quite heavily, with my initial big purchases being in March-April of 2016. Those purchases were in the $11-$14 range. ETH, of course, dropped immediately to under $10, then came back and bounced around my purchase range for a while until December of 2016, when I purchased a lot more at around $8.
I also purchased my first ICO in August of 2016, HEAT. I bought 25ETH worth. Those tokens are now worth about half of their ICO price, so about 12.5ETH or $12500 instead of the $25000 they would be worth if I had just kept ETH. There are some other things with HEAT that mean I’ve done quite a bit better than those numbers would suggest, but the fact is that the single best thing I could have done is to hold ETH and not spend the effort/time/cost of working with HEAT. That holds true for about every top-25 token on the market when compared to ETH. It certainly holds true for the many, many tokens I tried to trade in Q1-Q2 of 2017. In almost every single case I would have done better and slept better had I just held ETH instead of trying to be smarter than Mr. Market.
But, I made money on all of them except one because the crypto market went up more in USD terms than any individual coin went down in ETH or BTC terms. This underlines something that I read somewhere and that I take to heart: A rising market makes everyone seem like a genius. A monkey throwing darts at a list of the top 100 cryptocurrencies last year would have doubled his money. Here’s a chart from September that shows 2017 year-to-date returns for the top 10 cryptocurrencies, and all of them went up a *lot* more between then and December. A monkey throwing darts at this list there would have quintupled his money.
When evaluating performance, then, you have to beat the monkey, and preferably you should try to beat a Wall Street monkey. I couldn’t, so I stopped trying around July 2017. My benchmark was the BLX, a DAA (Digital Asset Array – think fund like a Fidelity fund) created by ICONOMI. I wasn’t even close to beating the BLX returns, so I did several things.
  1. I went from holding about 25 different tokens to holding 10 now. More on that in a bit.
  2. I used those funds to buy ETH and BLX. ETH has done crazy-good since then and BLX has beaten BTC handily, although it hasn’t done as well as ETH.
  3. I used some of those funds to set up an arbitrage operation.
The arbitrage operation is why I kept the 11 tokens that I have now. All but a couple are used in an ETH/token pair for arbitrage, and each one of them except for one special case is part of BLX. Why did I do that? I did that because ICONOMI did a better job of picking long-term holds than I did, and in arbitrage the only speculative thing you must do is pick the pairs to trade. My pairs are (No particular order):
I also hold PLU, PLBT, and ART. These two are multi-year holds for me. I have not purchased BTC once since my initial $200, except for a few cases where BTC was the only way to go to/from an altcoin that didn’t trade against ETH yet. Right now I hold about the same 0.3BTC that I held after my first $100 purchase, so I don’t really count it.
Looking forward to this year, I am positioning myself as follows:
Looking at my notes, I have two other things that I wanted to work into this email that I didn’t get to, so here they are:
  1. Just like with free apps and other software, if you are getting something of value and you didn’t pay anything for it, you need to ask why this is. With apps, the phrase is “If you didn’t pay for the product, you are the product”, and this works for things such as pump groups, tips, and even technical analysis. Here’s how I see it.
    1. People don’t give tips on stocks or crypto that they don’t already own that stock or token. Why would they, since if they convince anyone to buy it, the price only goes up as a result, making it more expensive for them to buy in? Sure, you will have friends and family that may do this, but people in a crypto club, your local cryptocurrency meetup, or online are generally not your friends. They are there to make money, and if they can get you to help them make money, they will do it. Pump groups are the worst of these, and no matter how enticing it may look, stay as far away as possible from these scams. I even go so far as to report them when I see them advertise on FB or Twitter, because they are violating the terms of use.
    2. Technical analysis (TA) is something that has been argued about for longer than I’ve been alive, but I think that it falls into the same boat. In short, TA argues that there are patterns in trading that can be read and acted upon to signal when one must buy or sell. It has been used forever in the stock and foreign exchange markets, and people use it in crypto as well. Let’s break down these assumptions a bit.
i. First, if crypto were like the stock or forex markets we’d all be happy with 5-7% gains per year rather than easily seeing that in a day. For TA to work the same way in crypto as it does in stocks and foreign exchange, the signals would have to be *much* stronger and faster-reacting than they work in the traditional market, but people use them in exactly the same way.
ii. Another area where crypto is very different than the stock and forex markets centers around market efficiency theory. This theory says that markets are efficient and that the price reflects all the available information at any given time. This is why gold in New York is similar in price to gold in London or Shanghai, and why arbitrage margins are easily <0.1% in those markets compared to cryptoland where I can easily get 10x that. Crypto simply has too much speculation and not enough professional traders in it yet to operate as an efficient market. That fundamentally changes the way that the market behaves and should make any TA patterns from traditional markets irrelevant in crypto.
iii. There are services, both free and paid that claim to put out signals based on TA for when one should buy and sell. If you think for even a second that they are not front-running (Placing orders ahead of yours to profit.) you and the other people using the service, you’re naïve.
iv. Likewise, if you don’t think that there are people that have but together computerized systems to get ahead of people doing manual TA, you’re naïve. The guys that I have programming my arbitrage bots have offered to build me a TA bot and set up a service to sell signals once our position is taken. I said no, but I am sure that they will do it themselves or sell that to someone else. Basically they look at TA as a tip machine where when a certain pattern is seen, people act on that “tip”. They use software to see that “tip” faster and take a position on it so that when slower participants come in they either have to sell lower or buy higher than the TA bot did. Remember, if you are getting a tip for free, you’re the product. In TA I see a system when people are all acting on free preset “tips” and getting played by the more sophisticated market participants. Again, you have to beat that Wall Street monkey.
  1. If you still don’t agree that TA is bogus, think about it this way: If TA was real, Wall Street would have figured it out decades ago and we would have TA funds that would be beating the market. We don’t.
  2. If you still don’t agree that TA is bogus and that its real and well, proven, then you must think that all smart traders use them. Now follow that logic forward and think about what would happen if every smart trader pushing big money followed TA. The signals would only last for a split second and would then be overwhelmed by people acting on them, making them impossible to leverage. This is essentially what the efficient market theory postulates for all information, including TA.
OK, the one last item. Read this weekly newsletter – You can sign up at the bottom. It is free, so they’re selling something, right? 😉 From what I can tell, though, Evan is a straight-up guy who posts links and almost zero editorial comments.
Happy 2018.
submitted by uetani to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

EOS - Getting Started & Helpful Links

WELCOME TO eos!

Table of Contents

  1. What is EOS?
  2. Why is EOS Different?
  3. Get Started
    1. WHAT IS AN EOS ACCOUNT?
      1. GET FREE EOS ACCOUNTS
      2. WHAT IS REX AND HOW TO USE IT FOR RESOURCES
      3. DECENTRALIZED FINANCE (DEFI) ON EOS
  4. Channels, dApps, Block Explorer and more
    1. Governance and Security
    2. Wallets
    3. DApps
    4. Popular dApps
    5. Block Explorers
      1. REX User Interfaces
  5. Channels
  6. FAQ

What is EOS?

EOS is a community-driven distributed blockchain, that allows the development and execution of industrial-scale decentralized applications (dApps). Therefore, EOS intention is to become a blockchain dApp platform that can securely and smoothly scale to thousands of transactions per second, all while providing an accessible experience to app developers, entrepreneurs, and users. They aim to provide a complete operating system for decentralized applications by providing services like user authentication, cloud storage, and server hosting.
The EOS.IO open-source code was developed and it is currently updated by Block.One. Block.One is based in the Cayman Island and it is managed by Brendan Blumer (CEO), Daniel Larimer (CTO) and Andrew Bliss (CFO).
Links:
Video:

How is EOS different?

EOS is the first Blockchain that focuses on building a dApps platform by using the delegated proof-of-stake consensus mechanism. With dPoS, EOS manage to provide a public blockchain with some particular features, such as Scalability, Flexibility, Usability and Governance.
Further Reading:

Get Started:

WHAT IS AN EOS ACCOUNT?

From EOS Beginners: Anatomy of an EOS Account
An EOS account is a readable name that is stored on the EOS blockchain and connected to your “keys”. An EOS account is required for performing actions on the EOS platform, such as sending/receiving tokens, voting, and staking.
Each account is linked to a public key, and this public key is in turn linked to a private key. A private key can be used to generate an associated public key, but not vice versa. (A private key and its associated public key make up a key pair)
These keys ensure that only you can access and perform actions with your account. Your public key is visible by everyone using the network. Your private key, however, will never be shown. You must store your private keys in a safe location as they should not be shared with anyone (unless you want your EOS to be stolen)!
TLDR: EOS Accounts are controlled by key pairs and store EOS tokens in the Blockchain. Wallets store key pairs that are used to sign transactions.

GET FREE EOS ACCOUNTS

From EOS Onboarding: Free Accounts
Unlike other chains in the space, EOSIO accounts do not typically charge a transfer fee for sending tokens or providing actions on the blockchain. Where Bitcoin and Ethereum mine blocks and charge a fee, EOS provides feeless transactions to users based on CPU, NET, and RAM resources.
Although traditionally those wanting to create EOS accounts in particular have needed to ‘pay a fee’ to get into the system, in reality this fee is nothing more than a basic stake of CPU and NET resources. In theory this provides free transactions on the network, the number of transactions that any user gets in a 24 hour window is determined by the amount of stake especially in CPU that any given account maintains.
This guide then provides a brief overview of the account creation process of some of those account types that allow for easy no friction EOS mainnet onboarding and in most cases, the provision of more than enough resources to be able to utilize the network without having to go through the process of buying, transferring, and staking or renting resources ensuring your account remains operational.

WHAT IS REX AND HOW TO USE IT FOR RESOURCES

What is REX?
REX (Resource Exchange) is a resource market that can meet the demand, where the EOS token holders can lease out tokens in return for “rent”, and the Dapps can lease resources they need with less cost.
For EOS holders:Earn an income via put your spare EOS tokens in REX instead of just keep it on your EOS account.
For EOS Dapps:Lease as much resources as you need at a decent price instead of stake EOS for resources in 1:1 ratio.
Source: TokenPocket
Through REX you can pay a small amount of EOS to receive a much larger amount in CPU or NET for a whole month. Today (August 20, 2020), paying 1 EOS on REX guarantees you 7,500 EOS in CPU for 30 days.
You can easily use REX via Anchor Wallet, importing your EOS Account and with a few simple clicks. Learn how to use REX with Anchor

DECENTRALIZED FINANCE (DEFI) ON EOS

Decentralized Finance (DeFi) is the combination of traditional financial instruments with decentralized blockchain technology. Currently DeFi is the fastest growing sector in blockchain, which allows greater inclusion within the financial system even for those who previously could not participate in the global economy. Indeed, to use DeFi products is enough just a smartphone, and the so-called "unbanked", ca now participate without any restrictions.
DeFi Projects on EOS
  • VIGOR - VIGOR protocol is a borrow, lend, and save community
  • Defibox - One-stop EOS DeFi Platform
  • Equilibrium (EOSDT) - Equilibrium is an all-in-one Interoperable DeFi hub
  • [PredIQt](prediqt.everipedia.org) - PredIQt is a prediction market & oracle protocol
  • PIZZA - PIZZA is an EOS based decentralized stablecoin system and financial platform
  • Chintai - high performance, fee-less community owned token leasing platform

Channels, dApps, Block Explorer and more

Governance and Security:

Wallets:

DApps:

Popular dApps:

  • NewDex - Decentralized Exchange.
  • Prospectors -MMO Game with Real Time Economic Strategies
  • Everipedia - Wiki-based online encyclopedia
  • Upland - Property trading game with real-world addresses
  • Crypto Dynasty - Play-to-Earn with Crypto Dynasty

Block explorers:

Guides to vote:

REX User Interface:

Channels:

Official:
Community:
Telegram:
Telegram Non-English General:
Developers:
Testnets:

FAQ:

submitted by eosgo to eos [link] [comments]

The Exhaustive EOS FAQ

The Exhaustive EOS FAQ

 
With the large number of new readers coming to this sub we need to make information easy to access so those readers can make informed decisions. We all know there is an unusually large amount of Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt (FUD) surrounding EOS. Frankly, when clear evidence is provided it’s not that difficult to see EOS for the extremely valuable project it is. This post hopes to begin to put an end to all the misinformation by doing the following:  
  • Giving a clear and concise answer to the most frequently asked questions in regards to EOS.
  • Giving a more in-depth answer for those who want to read more.
  • Allowing readers to make informed decisions by making credible information easy to access.
 
As EOS climbs the ranks we need to recognise there are going to be a lot of skeptical readers coming over and posting their questions. Sometimes they will be irrational, hostile and often just looking for a reaction. We should make it our responsibility to welcome everyone and refrain from responding emotionally to provocative posts, instead providing factual and rational answers.
I will add to this post as and when I can, if you have any ideas or spot any mistakes let me know and I'll get them fixed ASAP. Im planning to add a bit on the team, centralisation and DPOS, governance and EOS VC shortly but please let me hear your suggestions!
 

FAQ

1. How do you registeclaim your EOS tokens before June 2018?

 
Answer courtesy of endless. If you have not done so, you will need to create a new pair of EOS public and private keys and register them with an Ethereum address. This only needs to be done once.
On or around June 1, 2018 all EOS Tokens will become frozen and non-transferable on the Ethereum blockchain. Not long after, I suspect that EOS community members will create a snapshot of token balances that carry over onto a new community generated and selected EOS blockchain. block.one will not be launching EOS blockchains or operating any of their nodes. Additionally, this is a community subreddit unaffiliated in an official capacity with block.one
Method #1: MetaMask (recommended)
Video guide: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8K1Q5hX_4-o
steemit tutorial: https://steemit.com/eos/@ash/full-walkthrough-how-to-join-eos-ico
Method #2: MyEtherWallet
steemit tutorial: https://steemit.com/eos/@sandwich/contributing-to-eos-token-sale-with-myetherwallet-and-contract-inner-workings
Method #3: Exodus Wallet
Official website tutorial: http://support.exodus.io/article/65-i-ve-received-eos-tokens-in-exodus-how-do-i-register-them
Important note courtesy of dskvry bka Sandwich, the author of Method #2's steemit tutorial:
claimAll will not work for most users. When you get to the claim step, please use the following tutorial: https://steemit.com/eos/@koyn/minimizing-the-cost-of-gas-when-claiming-eos-using-myetherwallet
Did you buy your EOS tokens on an exchange? (Courtesy of IQOptionCoin)
REMEMBER YOU ONLY NEED TO REGISTER YOUR TOKENS IF YOU BOUGHT THEM ON AN EXCHANGE. YOU DON'T NEED TO CLAIM THEM.
  1. Go to the EOS website https://eos.io
  2. Scroll down and select "GET EOS"
  3. Tick all the required boxes and click "Continue"
  4. Scroll down and click "Register"
  5. Select Metamask, MyEtherWallet, or Ethereum Wallet
  6. Follow the guide.
  7. Remember that the reason you need to register your Ethereum ERC-20 address is to include your EOS tokens in order for the balance of your EOS Tokens to be included in the Snapshot if a Snapshot is created, you must register your Ethereum address with an EOS public key. The EOS snapshot will take place prior to the 1 June 2018. After this point your ERC-20 EOS tokens will be frozen. And you will be issued EOS tokens on the EOS blockchain.
So PLEASE REGISTER your Ethereum address NOW, don't forget about it, or plan on doing it some time in the near future.
There are a lot of submissions about this in /eos, so rather than making a new one please reply to this thread with any questions you may have. Don't forget to join the EOS mailing list: https://eos.io/#subscribe and join the EOS community on your platform(s) of choice: Telegram, Discord and/or Facebook.
And remember, if anyone instructs you to transfer ETH to an EOS contract address that doesn't match the address found on https://eos.io you are being scammed.
 

Sources:

How to registeclaim your EOS tokens before June 2018 by endless
Official EOS FAQ
 

2. How will the token the ERC-20 EOS tokens be transferred to the native blockchain?

 

Quick answer:

There isn't one! Read the long answer then read it again, registering your Ethereum wallet is mandatory!
 

Long answer:

Within 23 hours after the end of the final period on June 1, 2018 at 22:59:59 UTC, all EOS Tokens will become fixed (ie. frozen) and will become non-transferrable on the Ethereum blockchain.
In order to ensure your tokens are transferred over to the native blockchain you must register your Ethereum address with an EOS public key, if you do not you will lose all your tokens! I am not going to link any tutorials as there are many that can be found by searching Google and YouTube.
block.one is helping with the development of snapshot software that can be used to capture the EOS token balance and registered EOS public key of wallets on the Ethereum blockchain. It is then down to the community to create the snapshot. This snapshot can be used when generating a genesis block for a blockchain implementing eos.io software. block.one will not be launching EOS blockchains or operating any of their nodes.
 
Exchange Support
Some exchanges have announced that they will support the token swap. Although using this method will undoubtedly be much simpler than registering the tokens yourself it also comes with its pitfalls.
  • It is highly likely there are going to be multiple networks running on the eos.io software that use the snapshot. It is highly unlikely that exchanges will support them all.
  • It is highly likely that exchanges will not support airdrops that use the snapshot.
Exchanges that have announced support for the token swap include:
 

Sources:

EOS.io
 

3. What does EOS aim to achieve?

 

Quick answer:

EOS.IO software is aiming to provide a decentralized operating system which can support thousands of industrial scale DApps by enabling vertical and horizontal scaling.
 

Long answer:

EOS.IO is software that introduces a blockchain architecture designed to enable vertical and horizontal scaling of decentralized applications. This is achieved through an operating system-like construct upon which applications can be built. The software provides accounts, authentication, databases, asynchronous communication and the scheduling of applications across multiple CPU cores and/or clusters. The resulting technology is a blockchain architecture that has the potential to scale to millions of transactions per second, eliminates user fees and allows for quick and easy deployment of decentralized applications.
 

Sources:

Official EOS FAQ
 

4. Who are the key team figures behind EOS?

 
  • CEO Brendan Blumer - Founder of ii5 (1group) and okay.com. He has been in the blockchain industry since 2014 and started selling virtual assets at the age of 15. Brenden can be found on the Forbes Cypto Rich List. Brendan can be found on Twitter.
  • CTO Dan Larimer - Dan's the visionary industry leader who built BitShares, Graphene and Steemit as well as the increasingly popular Proof of Stake Governance and Decentralised Autonomous Organization Concept. He states his mission in life is “to find free market solutions to secure life, liberty, and property for all.”. Dan can also be found on the Forbes Cypto Rich List. Dan can be found on Twitter and Medium.
  • Partner Ian Grigg - Financial cryptographer who's been building cryptographic ledger platforms for 2+ decades. Inventor of the Ricardian Contract and Triple-Entry Accounting.
 

Sources:

Forbes Crypto Rich List
 

5. Where can the latest EOS news be found?

 
Official:
Community:
Developers:
 

6. Which consensus mechanism does EOS use and what are Block Producers?

 

Quick answer:

Delegated Proof of Stake (DPOS) with Byzantine Fault Tolerance. Block Producers (BPs) produce the blocks of the blockchain and are elected by token holders that vote for them. BPs will earn block rewards for their service, these block rewards come in the form of EOS tokens produced by token inflation.
 

Long answer:

Taken from the EOS.IO Technical White Paper v2:
“EOS.IO software utilizes the only known decentralized consensus algorithm proven capable of meeting the performance requirements of applications on the blockchain, Delegated Proof of Stake (DPOS). Under this algorithm, those who hold tokens on a blockchain adopting the EOS.IO software may select block producers through a continuous approval voting system. Anyone may choose to participate in block production and will be given an opportunity to produce blocks, provided they can persuade token holders to vote for them.
The EOS.IO software enables blocks to be produced exactly every 0.5 second and exactly one producer is authorized to produce a block at any given point in time. If the block is not produced at the scheduled time, then the block for that time slot is skipped. When one or more blocks are skipped, there is a 0.5 or more second gap in the blockchain.
Using the EOS.IO software, blocks are produced in rounds of 126 (6 blocks each, times 21 producers). At the start of each round 21 unique block producers are chosen by preference of votes cast by token holders. The selected producers are scheduled in an order agreed upon by 15 or more producers.
Byzantine Fault Tolerance is added to traditional DPOS by allowing all producers to sign all blocks so long as no producer signs two blocks with the same timestamp or the same block height. Once 15 producers have signed a block the block is deemed irreversible. Any byzantine producer would have to generate cryptographic evidence of their treason by signing two blocks with the same timestamp or blockheight. Under this model a irreversible consensus should be reachable within 1 second."
 

7. How does the voting process work?

 
The voting process will begin once the Block Producer community releases a joint statement ensuring that it is safe to import private keys and vote.
Broadly speaking there will be two methods of voting:
  1. Command Line Interface (CLI) tools
  2. Web portals
EOS Canada has created eosc, a CLI tool that supports Block Producer voting. Other Block Producer candidates such as LibertyBlock are a releasing web portal that will be ready for main net launch. There will be many more options over the coming weeks, please make sure you are always using a service from a trusted entity.
Remember: Do not import your private key until you have seen a joint statement released from at least five Block Producers that you trust which states when it is safe to do so. Ignoring this warning could result in tokens lost.
 

8. What makes EOS a good investment?

 
  • Team - EOS is spearheaded by the visionary that brought us the hugely successful Bitshares and Steem - arguably with two projects already under his belt there is no one more accomplished in the space.
  • Funding - EOS is one of the best funded projects in the space. The block.one team has committed $1B to investing in funds that grow the EOS echo system. EOS VC funds are managed by venture leaders distributed around the world to insure founders in all markets have the ability to work directly with local investors. Incentives such as the EOS hackathon are also in place with $1,500,000 USD in Prizes Across 4 Events.
  • Community Focus - The team is aware that the a projects success depends almost entirely on its adoption. For this reason there has been a huge push to develop a strong world wide community. There is already a surplus number of block producers that have registered their interest and started to ready themselves for the launch and incentives the EOS hackathon are being used to grow the community. A index of projects using EOS can be found at https://eosindex.io/posts.
  • Technical Advantages - See point 9!
 

9. What are the unique selling points of EOS?

 
  • Scaleability
    • Potential to scale to millions of transactions per second
    • Inter-blockchain communication
    • Separates authentication from execution
  • Flexibility
    • Freeze and fix broken applications
    • Generalised role based permissions
    • Web Assembly
  • Usability
    • Elimination of transaction fees
    • True user accounts with usernames, passwords and account recovery (no more having to remember long cryptographic keys)
    • Web toolkit for interface development
 

Sources:

eos.io
EOS Whitepaper
 

10. Is there currently a working product?

 

Quick answer:

This depends entirely on your definition of working product. If a fully featured developer release meets your definition then yes!. Otherwise the public release will be June 2018.
 

Long answer:

EOS differs from other projects in that it aims to deliver a fully featured version of the software on launch. The Dawn 3.0 RC1 feature complete pre-release became available on April 5th. This version has all the features of the final release that is due June 2018. Further development will involve preparing the final system contract which implements all of the staking, voting, and governance mechanics. The common notion that there is no viewable code published is wrong and the initial Dawn 1.0 release has been available from September 14th 2017.
 
EOSIO V1 - June 2nd 2018
Dawn 3.0 RC1 - April 5th 2018
Dawn 3.0 Alpha - January 23rd 2018
Dawn 2.0 - December 4th 2017
Dawn 1.0 - September 14th 2017
 

Sources:

 

11. EOS is an ERC-20 token, how can it possibly be a competitor to other platforms?

 

Quick answer:

The ERC-20 token is used only for raising funds during the token distribution; all tokens will be transferred to the native blockchain once launched.
 

Long answer:

EOS team has clearly stated their reason for choosing the Ethereum network when they described the rationale behind the ICO model. Specifically, the ICO should be a fair and auditable process, with as little trust required as possible. If you believe that an ICO should be fair, auditable, and trustless, you have no choice but to use a decentralized smart contract blockchain to run the ICO, the largest, and by-far most popular of which is Ethereum. Since EOS is intended to be a major competitor for Ethereum, some have seen this as a hypocritical choice. - Stolen from trogdor on Steam (I couldn’t word it any better myself).  

Sources:

The EOS ico for dummies by trogdor
Official EOS FAQ
 

12. Why do the eos.io T&C’s say the ERC-20 token has no value?

 
The EOS T&C’s famously state:
"The EOS Tokens do not have any rights, uses, purpose, attributes, functionalities or features, express or implied, including, without limitation, any uses, purpose, attributes, functionalities or features on the EOS Platform."
 

Quick answer:

This is legal wording to avoid all the legal complications in this emerging space, block.one do not want to find themselves in a lawsuit as we are seeing with an increasing amount of other ICOs. Most notably Tezos (links below).
 

Long answer:

This all comes down to legal issues. Anyone who’s been into crypto for 5 minuets knows that government bodies such as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) are now paying attention to crypto in a big way. This legal wording is to avoid all the legal complications in this emerging space, block.one do not want to find themselves in a lawsuit as we are seeing with an increasing amount of other ICOs. Many token creators that launched ICOs are now in deep water for selling unregistered securities.
 
A filing from the Tezos lawsuit:
"In sum, Defendants capitalized on the recent enthusiasm for blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies to raise funds through the ICO, illegally sold unqualified and unregistered securities, used a Swiss-based entity in an unsuccessful attempt to evade U.S. securities laws, and are now admittedly engaged in the conversion, selling, and possible dissipation of the proceeds that they collected from the Class through their unregistered offering."
 
To ensure EOS tokens are not classed as a unregistered security block.one has made it clear that they are creating the EOS software only and won’t launching a public blockchain themselves. This task is left down to the community, or more precisely, the Block Producers (BPs). The following disclaimer is seen after posts from block.one:
 
"block.one is a software company and is producing the EOS.IO software as free, open source software. This software may enable those who deploy it to launch a blockchain or decentralized applications with the features described above. block.one will not be launching a public blockchain based on the EOS.IO software. It will be the sole responsibility of third parties and the community and those who wish to become block producers to implement the features and/or provide the services described above as they see fit. block.one does not guarantee that anyone will implement such features or provide such services or that the EOS.IO software will be adopted and deployed in any way.”
 
It is expected that many blockchains using eos.io software will emerge. To ensure DAPPs are created on an ecosystem that aligns with the interests of block.one a $1bn fund will be has been created to incentivise projects to use this blockchain.
 

Sources:

EOS.io FAQ Great video on this topic by The Awakenment EOS $1bn Fund Announcement Article on the Tezos lawsuit Article on the Gigawatt lawsuit An official block.one post featuring disclaimer
 

13. Why is the token distribution one year long?

 
Official statement from block.one:
“A lot of token distributions only allow a small amount of people to participate. The EOS Token distribution structure was created to provide a sufficient period of time for people to participate if they so choose, as well as give people the opportunity to see the development of the EOS.IO Software prior to making a decision to purchase EOS Tokens.”
 
It is also worth noting that block.one had no knowledge how much the the token distribution would raise as it is determined by the free market and the length of the token distribution is coded into the Ethereum smart contract, which cannot be changed.
 

Sources:

EOS.io FAQ
 

14. Where is the money going from the token distribution?

 

Quick answer:

Funding for the project was raised before EOS was announced, the additional money raised from the token distribution is largely going to fund projects on EOS.
 

Long answer:

A large portion of the money raised is getting put back into the community to incentivise projects using eos.io software. block.one raised all the money they needed to develop the software before the ERC-20 tokens went on sale. There are some conspiracies that block.one are pumping the price of EOS using the funds raised. The good thing about blockchain is you can trace all the transactions, which show nothing of the sort. Not only this but the EOS team are going to have an independent audit after the funding is complete for piece of mind.
 
From eos.io FAQ:
“block.one intends to engage an independent third party auditor who will release an independent audit report providing further assurances that block.one has not purchased EOS Tokens during the EOS Token distribution period or traded EOS Tokens (including using proceeds from the EOS Token distribution for these purposes). This report will be made available to the public on the eos.io website.”
 

Sources:

EOS.io FAQ EOS $1bn Fund Announcement
 

15. Who's using EOS?

 
With 2 months from launch left there is a vibrant community forming around EOS. Some of the most notable projects that EOS software will support are:
A more complete list of EOS projects can be found at eosindex.io.
 

16. Dan left his previous projects, will he leave EOS?

 

Quick answer:

When EOS has been created Dan will move onto creating projects for EOS with block.one.
 

Long answer:

When a blockchain project has gained momentum and a strong community has formed the project takes on a life of its own and the communities often have ideas that differ from the creators. As we have seen with the Bitcoin and Ethereum hark forks you cant pivot a community too much in a different direction, especially if its changing the fundamentals of the blockchain. Instead of acting like a tyrant Dan has let the communities do what they want and gone a different way. Both the Bitshares and Steem were left in a great position and with Dans help turned out to be two of the most successful blockchain projects to date. Some would argue the most successful projects that are actually useable and have a real use case.
What Dan does best is build the architecture and show whats possible. Anyone can then go on to do the upgrades. He is creating EOS to build his future projects upon it. He has stated he loves working at block.one with Brendan and the team and there is far too much momentum behind EOS for him to possibly leave.
 

Sources:

Dans future beyond EOS
Why Dan left Bitshares
Why Dan left Steem
 

17. Is EOS susceptible to DDoS attacks?

 
No one could have better knowledge on this subject than our Block Producer candidates, I have chosen to look to EOS New York for this answer:
"DDoS'ing a block producing is not as simple as knowing their IP address and hitting "go". We have distributed systems engineers in each of our candidate groups that have worked to defend DDoS systems in their careers. Infrastructure can be built in a way to minimize the exposure of the Block Producing node itself and to prevent a DDoS attack. We haven't published our full architecture yet but let's take a look at fellow candidate EOSphere to see what we mean. As for the launch of the network, we are assuming there will be attacks on the network as we launch. It is being built into the network launch plans. I will reach out to our engineers to get a more detailed answer for you. What also must be considered is that there will be 121 total producing and non-producing nodes on the network. To DDoS all 121 which are located all around the world with different security configurations at the exact same time would be a monumental achievement."
 

Sources:

eosnewyork on DDoS attackd
EOSSphere Architecture
 

18. If block producers can alter code how do we know they will not do so maliciously?

 

Quick answer:

  • Block producers are voted in by stake holders.
  • Changes to the protocol, constitution or other updates are proposed to the community by block producers.
  • Changes takes 2 to 3 months due to the fact block producers must maintain 15/21 approval for a set amount of time while for changes to be processed.
  • To ensure bad actors can be identified and expelled the block.one backed community will not back an open-entry system built around anonymous participation.
 

Long answer:

For this question we must understand the following.
  • Governance and why it is used.
  • The process of upgrading the protocol, constitution & other updates.
  • Dan’s view on open-entry systems built around anonymous participation.
 
Governance
Cryptography can only be used to prove logical consistency. It cannot be used to make subjective judgment calls, determine right or wrong, or even identify truth or falsehood (outside of consistency). We need humans to perform these tasks and therefore we need governance!
Governance is the process by which people in a community:
  1. Reach consensus on subjective matters of collective action that cannot be captured entirely by software algorithms;
  2. Carry out the decisions they reach; and
  3. Alter the governance rules themselves via Constitutional amendments.
Embedded into the EOS.IO software is the election of block producers. Before any change can be made to the blockchain these block producers must approve it. If the block producers refuse to make changes desired by the token holders then they can be voted out. If the block producers make changes without permission of the token holders then all other non-producing full-node validators (exchanges, etc) will reject the change.
 
Upgrade process
The EOS.IO software defines the following process by which the protocol, as defined by the canonical source code and its constitution, can be updated:
  1. Block producers propose a change to the constitution and obtains 15/21 approval.
  2. Block producers maintain 15/21 approval of the new constitution for 30 consecutive days.
  3. All users are required to indicate acceptance of the new constitution as a condition of future transactions being processed.
  4. Block producers adopt changes to the source code to reflect the change in the constitution and propose it to the blockchain using the hash of the new constitution.
  5. Block producers maintain 15/21 approval of the new code for 30 consecutive days.
  6. Changes to the code take effect 7 days later, giving all non-producing full nodes 1 week to upgrade after ratification of the source code.
  7. All nodes that do not upgrade to the new code shut down automatically.
By default, configuration of the EOS.IO software, the process of updating the blockchain to add new features takes 2 to 3 months, while updates to fix non-critical bugs that do not require changes to the constitution can take 1 to 2 months.
 
Open-entry systems built around anonymous participation
To ensure bad actors can be identified and expelled the block.one backed community will not back an open-entry system built around anonymous participation.
Dan's quote:
"The only way to maintain the integrity of a community is for the community to have control over its own composition. This means that open-entry systems built around anonymous participation will have no means expelling bad actors and will eventually succumb to profit-driven corruption. You cannot use stake as a proxy for goodness whether that stake is held in a bond or a shareholder’s vote. Goodness is subjective and it is up to each community to define what values they hold as good and to actively expel people they hold has bad.
The community I want to participate in will expel the rent-seeking vote-buyers and reward those who use their elected broadcasting power for the benefit of all community members rather than special interest groups (such as vote-buyers). I have faith that such a community will be far more competitive in a market competition for mindshare than one that elects vote buyers."
 

Sources:

The Limits of Crypto-economic Governance
EOS.IO Technical White Paper v2
 

19. What is the most secure way to generate EOS key pairs?

 
Block producer candidates EOS Cafe and EOS New York have come forward to help the community with this topic.
The block producer candidate eosnewyork has kindly posted a tutorial on steemit detailing the steps that need to be taken to generate key pairs using the official code on the EOS.IO Github.
The block producer candidate eoscafe has gone a step further and released an Offline EOS Key Generator application complete with GUI for Windows, Linux & Mac. Not only can this application generate key pairs but it can also validate key pairs and resolve public keys from private keys. This application has also been vouched for by EOS New York
 

Sources:

EOS.IO Github
eosnewyork's key pair generation tutorial
eoscafe's offline key par generation application  
submitted by Techno-Tech to eos [link] [comments]

[META] New to PC Building? - September 2018 Edition

Intro

You've heard from all your gaming friends/family or co-workers that custom PCs are the way to go. Or maybe you've been fed up with your HP, Dell, Acer, Gateway, Lenovo, etc. pre-builts or Macs and want some more quality and value in your next PC purchase. Or maybe you haven't built a PC in a long time and want to get back into the game. Well, here's a good place to start.

Instructions

  1. Make a budget for your PC (e.g., $800, $1000, $1250, $1500, etc.).
  2. Decide what you will use your PC for.
    • For gaming, decide what games and at what resolution and FPS you want to play at.
    • For productivity, decide what software you'll need and find the recommended specs to use those apps.
    • For a bit of both, your PC build should be built on the HIGHEST specs recommended for your applications (e.g., if you only play FortNite and need CPU power for CFD simulations, use specs recommended for CFD).
    Here are some rough estimates for builds with entirely NEW parts:
    1080p 60FPS ultra-settings modern AAA gaming: ~$1,200
    1440p 60FPS high/ultra-settings modern AAA gaming: ~$1,600
    1080p 144FPS ultra-settings modern AAA gaming: $2,000
    4K 50FPS medium/high-settings modern AAA gaming: > $2,400
    It's noted that some compromises (e.g., lower settings and/or resolution) can be made to achieve the same or slightly lower gaming experience within ±15% of the above prices. It's also noted that you can still get higher FPS on older or used PCs by lowering settings and/or resolution AND/OR buying new/used parts to upgrade your system. Make a new topic about it if you're interested.
    Also note that AAA gaming is different from e-sport games like CSGO, DOTA2, FortNite, HOTS, LoL, Overwatch, R6S, etc. Those games have lower requirements and can make do with smaller budgets.
  3. Revise your budget AND/OR resolution and FPS until both are compatible. Compare this to the recommended requirements of the most demanding game on your list. For older games, you might be able to lower your budget. For others, you might have to increase your budget.
    It helps to watch gaming benchmarks on Youtube. A good example of what you're looking for is something like this (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9eLxSOoSdjY). Take note of the resolution, settings, FPS, and the specs in the video title/description; ask yourself if the better gaming experience is worth increasing your budget OR if you're okay with lower settings and lowering your budget. Note that you won't be able to see FPS higher than 60FPS for Youtube videos; something like this would have to be seen in-person at a computer shop.
  4. Make a build on https://ca.pcpartpicker.com/. If you still have no idea how to put together parts, start here (http://www.logicalincrements.com/) to get an understanding of PC part tiers. If you want more info about part explanations and brief buying tips, see the next section below.
  5. Click on the Reddit logo button next to Markup, copy and paste the generated text (in markup mode if using new Reddit), and share your build for review!
  6. Consider which retailer to buy your parts from. Here's a table comparing different retailers: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1L8uijxuoJH4mjKCjwkJbCrKprCiU8CtM15mvOXxzV1s/edit?usp=sharing
  7. Buy your parts! Use PCPP above to send you e-mail alerts on price drops or subscribe to /bapcsalescanada for deals.
    You can get parts from the following PC retailers in alphabetical order:
  8. After procuring your parts, it's time to build. Use a good Youtube tutorial like this (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IhX0fOUYd8Q) that teach BAPC fundamentals, but always refer to your product manuals or other Youtube tutorials for part-specific instructions like CPU mounting, radiator mounting, CMOS resetting, etc. If it everything still seems overwhelming, you can always pay a computer shop or a friend/family member to build it for you.
    It might also be smart to look up some first-time building mistakes to avoid:
  9. Share your experience with us.
  10. If you have any other questions, use the search bar first. If it's not there, make a topic.

BAPC News (Last Updated - 2018/09/20)

CPU

https://www.tomshardware.com/news/intel-9000-series-cpu-faq,37743.html
Intel 9000 CPUs (Coffee Lake Refresh) will be coming out in Q4. With the exception of i9 (8-core, 12 threads) flagship CPUs, the i3, i5, and i7 lineups are almost identical to their Intel 8000 (Coffee Lake) series, but slightly clocked faster. If you are wondering if you should upgrade to the newer CPU on the same tier (e.g., i5-8400 to i5-9400), I don't recommend that you do as you will only see marginal performance increases.

Mobo

https://www.anandtech.com/show/13135/more-details-on-intels-z390-chipset-exposed
Z370s will now be phased out for Z390s boards, which will natively support Intel 9000 CPUs (preferably i5-9600K, i7-9700K, and i9-9900K).

GPU

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WDrpsv0QIR0
RTX 2080 and 2080 Ti benchmarks are out; they provide ~10 and ~20 frames better than the 1080 Ti and also feature ray tracing (superior lighting and shadow effects) which is featured in only ~30 games so far (i.e., not supported a lot); effectively, they provide +25% more performance for +70% increased cost. My recommendation is NOT to buy them unless you need it for work or have lots of disposable income. GTX 1000 Pascal series are still relevant in today's gaming specs.

Part Explanations

CPU

The calculator part. More GHz is analogous to fast fingers number crunching in the calculator. More cores is analogous to having more calculators. More threads is analogous to having more filing clerks piling more work for the calculator to do. Microarchitectures (core design) is analogous to how the internal circuit inside the calculator is designed (e.g., AMD FX series are slower than Intel equivalents even with higher OC'd GHz speeds because the core design is subpar). All three are important in determining CPU speed.
In general, higher GHz is more important for gaming now whereas # cores and threads are more important for multitasking like streaming, video editing, and advanced scientific/engineering computations. Core designs from both AMD and Intel in their most recent products are very good now, but something to keep in mind.

Overclocking

The basic concept of overclocking (OCing) is to feed your CPU more power through voltage and hoping it does calculations faster. Whether your parts are good overclockers depends on the manufacturing process of your specific part and slight variations in materials and manufacturing process will result in different overclocking capability ("silicon lottery"). The downside to this is that you can void your warranties because doing this will produce excess heat that will decrease the lifespan of your parts AND that there is a trial-and-error process to finding OC settings that are stable. Unstable OC settings result in computer freezes or random shut-offs from excess heat. OCing will give you extra performance often for free or by investing in a CPU cooler to control your temperatures so that the excess heat will not decrease your parts' lifespans as much. If you don't know how to OC, don't do it.

Current Products

Intel CPUs have higher GHz than AMD CPUs, which make them better for gaming purposes. However, AMD Ryzen CPUs have more cores and threads than their Intel equivalents. The new parts are AMD Ryzen 3, 5, or 7 2000 series or Intel i3, i5, or i7 8000 series (Coffee Lake). Everything else is outdated.
If you want to overclock on an AMD system, know that you can get some moderate OC on a B350/B450 with all CPUs. X370/X470 mobos usually come with better VRMs meant for OCing 2600X, 2700, and 2700X. If you don't know how to OC, know that the -X AMD CPUs have the ability to OC themselves automatically without manually settings. For Intel systems, you cannot OC unless the CPU is an unlocked -K chip (e.g., i3-8350K, i5-8600K, i7-8700K, etc.) AND the motherboard is a Z370 mobo. In general, it is not worth getting a Z370 mobo UNLESS you are getting an i5-8600K and i7-8700K.

CPU and Mobo Compatibility

Note about Ryzen 2000 CPUs on B350 mobos: yes, you CAN pair them up since they use the same socket. You might get an error message on PCPP that says that they might not be compatible. Call the retailer and ask if the mobo you're planning on buying has a "Ryzen 2000 Series Ready" sticker on the box. This SHOULD NOT be a problem with any mobos manufactured after February 2018.
Note about Intel 9000 CPUs on B360 / Z370 mobos: same as above with Ryzen 2000 CPUs on B350 or X370 boards.

CPU Cooler (Air / Liquid)

Air or liquid cooling for your CPU. This is mostly optional unless heavy OCing on AMD Ryzen CPUs and/or on Intel -K and i7-8700 CPUs.
For more information about air and liquid cooling comparisons, see here:

Motherboard/mobo

Part that lets all the parts talk to each other. Comes in different sizes from small to big: mITX, mATX, ATX, and eATX. For most people, mATX is cost-effective and does the job perfectly. If you need more features like extra USB slots, go for an ATX. mITX is for those who want a really small form factor and are willing to pay a premium for it. eATX mobos are like ATX mobos except that they have more features and are bigger - meant for super PC enthusiasts who need the features.
If you are NOT OCing, pick whatever is cheap and meets your specs. I recommend ASUS or MSI because they have RMA centres in Canada in case it breaks whereas other parts are outside of Canada like in the US. If you are OCing, then you need to look at the quality of the VRMs because those will greatly influence the stability and lifespan of your parts.

Memory/RAM

Part that keeps Windows and your software active. Currently runs on the DDR4 platform for new builds. Go for dual channel whenever possible. Here's a breakdown of how much RAM you need:
AMD Ryzen CPUs get extra FPS for faster RAM speeds (ideally 3200MHz) in gaming when paired with powerful video cards like the GTX 1070. Intel Coffee Lake CPUs use up a max of 2667MHz for B360 mobos. Higher end Z370 mobos can support 4000 - 4333MHz RAM depending on the mobo, so make sure you shop carefully!
It's noted that RAM prices are highly inflated because of the smartphone industry and possibly artificial supply shortages. For more information: https://www.extremetech.com/computing/263031-ram-prices-roof-stuck-way

Storage

Part that store your files in the form of SSDs and HDDs.

Solid State Drives (SSDs)

SSDs are incredibly quick, but are expensive per TB; they are good for booting up Windows and for reducing loading times for gaming. For an old OEM pre-built, upgrading the PC with an SSD is the single greatest speed booster you can do to your system. For most people, you want to make sure the SSD you get is NOT DRAM-less as these SSDs do not last as long as their DRAM counterparts (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ybIXsrLCgdM). It is also noted that the bigger the capacity of the SSD, the faster they are. SSDs come in four forms:
The 2.5" SATA form is cheaper, but it is the old format with speeds up to 550MB/s. M.2 SATA SSDs have the same transfer speeds as 2.5" SATA SSDs since they use the SATA interface, but connect directly to the mobo without a cable. It's better for cable management to get an M.2 SATA SSD over a 2.5" SATA III SSD. M.2 PCI-e SSDs are the newest SSD format and transfer up to 4GB/s depending on the PCI-e lanes they use (e.g., 1x, 2x, 4x, etc.). They're great for moving large files (e.g., 4K video production). For more info about U.2 drives, see this post (https://www.reddit.com/bapccanada/comments/8jxfqs/meta_new_to_pc_building_may_2018_edition/dzqj5ks/). Currently more common for enterprise builds, but could see some usage in consumer builds.

Hard Disk Drives (HDDs)

HDDs are slow with transfer speeds of ~100MB/s, but are cheap per TB compared to SSDs. We are now at SATA III speeds, which have a max theoretical transfer rate of 600MB/s. They also come in 5400RPM and 7200RPM forms. 5400RPM uses slightly less power and are cheaper, but aren't as fast at dealing with a large number of small files as 7200RPM HDDs. When dealing with a small number of large files, they have roughly equivalent performance. It is noted that even a 10,000RPM HDD will still be slower than an average 2.5" SATA III SSD.

Others

SSHDs are hybrids of SSDs and HDDs. Although they seem like a good combination, it's much better in all cases to get a dedicated SSD and a dedicated HDD instead. This is because the $/speed better for SSDs and the $/TB is better for HDDs. The same can be said for Intel Optane. They both have their uses, but for most users, aren't worth it.

Overall

I recommend a 2.5" or M.2 SATA ≥ 250GB DRAM SSD and a 1TB or 2TB 7200RPM HDD configuration for most users for a balance of speed and storage capacity.

Video Card/GPU

Part that runs complex calculations in games and outputs to your monitor and is usually the most expensive part of the budget. The GPU you pick is dictated by the gaming resolution and FPS you want to play at.
In general, all video cards of the same product name have almost the same non-OC'd performance (e.g., Asus Dual-GTX1060-06G has the same performance as the EVGA 06G-P4-6163-KR SC GAMING). The different sizes and # fans DO affect GPU OCing capability, however. The most important thing here is to get an open-air video card, NOT a blower video card (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0domMRFG1Rw). The blower card is meant for upgrading pre-builts where case airflow is limited.
For cost-performance, go for the NVIDIA GTX cards because of the cryptomining industry that has inflated AMD RX cards. Bitcoin has taken a -20% hit since January's $10,000+ as of recently, but the cryptomining industry is still ongoing. Luckily, this means prices have nearly corrected itself to original MSRP in 2016.
In general:
Note that if your monitor has FreeSync technology, get an AMD card. If your monitor has G-Sync, get a NVIDIA card. Both technologies allow for smooth FPS gameplay. If you don't have either, it doesn't really matter which brand you get.
For AMD RX cards, visit https://www.pcworld.com/article/3197885/components-graphics/every-amd-radeon-rx-graphics-card-you-can-buy-for-pc-gaming.html

New NVIDIA GeForce RTX Series

New NVIDIA 2000 RTX series have been recently announced and will be carried in stores in Q3 and Q4. Until all of the products have been fully vetted and reviewed, we cannot recommend those yet as I cannot say if they are worth what NVIDIA has marketed them as. But they will be faster than their previous equivalents and will require more wattage to use. The 2070, 2080, and 2080 Ti will feature ray tracing, which is a new feature seen in modern CG movies that greatly enhances lighting and shadow effects. At this time, < 30 games will use ray tracing (https://www.pcgamer.com/21-games-will-support-nvidias-real-time-ray-tracing-here-are-demos-of-tomb-raider-and-control/). It's also noted that the 2080 Ti is the Titan XP equivalent, which is why it's so expensive. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Irs8jyEmmPQ) The community's general recommendation is NOT to pre-order them until we see some reviews and benchmarks from reviewers first.
Looks like a couple of benchmarks are out. While keeping other parts equal the following results were obtained(https://videocardz.com/77983/nvidia-geforce-rtx-2080-ti-and-rtx-2080-official-performance-unveiled). So the 2080 and 2080 Ti are better than last generation's 1080 Ti by ~10 and ~20 frames respectively.

Case

Part that houses your parts and protects them from its environment. Should often be the last part you choose because the selection is big enough to be compatible with any build you choose as long as the case is equal to or bigger than the mobo form factor.
Things to consider: aesthetics, case airflow, cable management, material, cooling options (radiators or # of fan spaces), # fans included, # drive bays, toolless installation, power supply shroud, GPU clearance length, window if applicable (e.g., acrylic, tempered glass), etc.
It is recommended to watch or read case reviews on Youtube to get an idea of a case's performance in your setup.

Power Supply/PSU

Part that runs your PC from the wall socket. Never go with an non-reputable/cheap brand out on these parts as low-quality parts could damage your other parts. Recommended branded PSUs are Corsair, EVGA, Seasonic, and Thermaltake, generally. For a tier list, see here (https://linustechtips.com/main/topic/631048-psu-tier-list-updated/).

Wattage

Wattage depends on the video card chosen, if you plan to OC, and/or if you plan to upgrade to a more powerful PSU in the future. Here's a rule of thumb for non-OC wattages that meet NVIDIA's recommendations:
There are also PSU wattage calculators that you can use to estimate your wattage. How much wattage you used is based on your PC parts, how much OCing you're doing, your peripherals (e.g., gaming mouse and keyboard), and how long you plan to leave your computer running, etc. It is noted that these calculators use conservative estimates, so use the outputted wattage as a baseline of how much you need. Here are the calculators (thanks, VitaminDeity).
Pick ONE calculator to use and use the recommended wattage, NOT recommended product, as a baseline of what wattage you need for your build. Note that Cooler Master and Seasonic use the exact calculator as Outervision. For more details about wattage, here are some reference videos:

Modularity

You might also see some info about modularity (non-modular, semi-modular, or fully-modular). These describe if the cables will come connected to the PSU or can be separated of your own choosing. Non-modular PSUs have ALL of the cable connections attached to the PSU with no option to remove unneeded cables. Semi-modular PSUs have separate cables for HDDs/SSDs and PCI-e connectors, but will have CPU and mobo cables attached. Modular PSUs have all of their cables separate from each other, allowing you to fully control over cable management. It is noted that with decent cooling and airflow in your case, cable management has little effect on your temperatures (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YDCMMf-_ASE).

80+ Efficiency Ratings

As for ratings (80+, 80+ bronze, 80+ gold, 80+ platinum), these are the efficiencies of your PSU. Please see here for more information. If you look purely on electricity costs, the 80+ gold PSUs will be more expensive than 80+ bronze PSUs for the average Canadian user until a breakeven point of 6 years (assuming 8 hours/day usage), but often the better performance, longer warranty periods, durable build quality, and extra features like fanless cooling is worth the extra premium. In general, the rule of thumb is 80+ bronze for entry-level office PCs and 80+ gold for mid-tier or higher gaming/workstation builds. If the price difference between a 80+ bronze PSU and 80+ gold PSU is < 20%, get the 80+ gold PSU!

Warranties

Warranties should also be looked at when shopping for PSUs. In general, longer warranties also have better PSU build quality. In general, for 80+ bronze and gold PSU units from reputable brands:
Any discrepancies are based on varied wattages (i.e., higher wattages have longer warranties) or updated warranty periods. Please refer to the specific product's warranty page for the correct information. For EVGA PSUs, see here (https://www.evga.com/support/warranty/power-supplies/). For Seasonic PSUs, see here (https://seasonic.com/support#period). For Corsair PSUs, see here (https://www.corsair.com/ca/en/warranty).
For all other PSU inquiries, look up the following review sites for the PSUs you're interested in buying:
These guys are engineering experts who take apart PSUs, analyze the quality of each product, and provide an evaluation of the product. Another great website is http://www.orionpsudb.com/, which shows which PSUs are manufactured by different OEMs.

Operating System (OS)

Windows 10

The most common OS. You can download the ISO here (https://www.microsoft.com/en-ca/software-download/windows10). For instructions on how to install the ISO from a USB drive, see here (https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-hardware/manufacture/desktop/install-windows-from-a-usb-flash-drive) or watch a video here (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLfnuE1unS8). For most users, go with the 64-bit version.
If you purchase a Windows 10 retail key (i.e., you buy it from a retailer or from Microsoft directly), keep in mind that you are able to transfer it between builds. So if you're building another PC for the 2nd, 3rd, etc. time, you can reuse the key for those builds PROVIDED that you deactivate your key before installing it on your new PC. These keys are ~$120.
However, if you have an OEM key (e.g., pre-builts), that key is tied specifically to your mobo. If you ever decide to upgrade your mobo on that pre-built PC, you might have to buy a new Windows 10 license. For more information, see this post (https://www.techadvisor.co.uk/feature/windows/windows-10-oem-or-retail-3665849/). The cheaper Windows 10 keys you can find on Kinguin are OEM keys; activating and deactivating these keys may require phoning an automated Microsoft activation line. Most of these keys are legitimate and cost ~$35, although Microsoft does not intend for home users to obtain this version of it. Buyer beware.
The last type of key is a volume licensing key. They are licensed in large volumes to corporate or commercial usage. You can find lots of these keys on eBay for ~$10, but if the IT department who manages these keys audit who is using these keys or if the number of activations have exceeded the number allotted on that one key, Microsoft could block that key and invalidate your license. Buyer beware.
For more information on differentiating between all three types of keys, see this page (https://www.tenforums.com/tutorials/49586-determine-if-windows-license-type-oem-retail-volume.html).
If money is tight, you can get Windows 10 from Microsoft and use a trial version of it indefinitely. However, there will be a watermark in the bottom-right of your screen until you activate your Windows key.

MacOS

If you're interested in using MacOS, look into Hackintosh builds. This will allow you to run MacOS to run on PC parts, saving you lots of money. These builds are pretty picky about part compatibility, so you might run into some headaches trying to go through with this. For more information, see the following links:

Linux

If you're interested in a free open-source OS, see the following links:
For more information, go to /linux, /linuxquestions, and /linux4noobs.

Peripherals

Monitors

Keyboards and Mice

Overall

Please note that the cost-performance builds will change daily because PC part prices change often! Some builds will have excellent cost-performance one day and then have terrible cost-performance the next. If you want to optimize cost-performance, it is your responsibility to do this if you go down this route!
Also, DO NOT PM me with PC build requests! It is in your best interests to make your own topic so you can get multiple suggestions and input from the community rather than just my own. Thanks again.

Sample Builds

Here are some sample builds that are reliable, but may not be cost-optimized builds. These builds were created on September 9, 2018; feel free to "edit this part list" and create your own builds.

Links

Helpful links to common problems below:

Contributors

Thanks to:

Housekeeping

2019/09/22
2019/09/18
Updates:
2019/09/09
Updates:
Sorry for the lack of updates. I recently got a new job where I work 12 hours/day for 7 days at a time out of the city. What little spare time I have is spent on grad school and the gym instead of gaming. So I've been pretty behind on the news and some might not be up-to-date as my standards would have been with less commitments. If I've made any mistakes, please understand it might take a while for me to correct them. Thank you!
submitted by BlackRiot to bapccanada [link] [comments]

/r/Monero - Newcomers Please Read. Everything You Need To Know.

What is Monero (XMR)?
Monero is a secure, private, untraceable (crypto-)currency. It is open-source and freely available to all. Don't believe us? Click here.
Monero is a tool that people can actually use. It makes receiving payments hassle-free, since merchants and individuals no longer need to fear the source of funds they are accepting. With transparent systems like Bitcoin, Ethereum, Verge, or Dash, these people need to hope (or spend substantial resources verifying) the sender did not use the funds illicitly. Furthermore, merchants do not want all their vendors known, and individually do not want everyone to know how much they are spending. If I spend more than I should at Newegg (store), that's my own business.
Monero is different because every transaction is always private. There is no way for pools and exchanges to opt out of sending private transactions. Thus, Monero's anonymity set far exceeds any other coin's anonymity set. Over 86,000 transactions in the past month of August, 2017 hid the sender and receiver, and about 99.95% of them also hid the amount (will increase to 100% of all new transactions in September)! There is no suspicion in using a private transaction, since all transactions are private. A single transaction does not stick out.*
This privacy is afforded with the best technology. I implore you to take a few minutes to learn about the four main technologies that Monero uses to provide privacy:
There are several other things that make Monero great! It has a smooth tail emission, dynamic blocks and fees, and an accessible Proof of Work (mining) algorithm.
*You can optionally choose a very large, unusual ringsize to make the transaction stick out. This is not recommended, and normal users who leave the ringsize at the default setting will not experience any issues. Also, it's possible for a user to manually add identifying information to the tx_extra field, which is something that a user must seriously go out of their way to do.
Now you know Monero (XMR) has the best technology. What else makes Monero (XMR) different than other cryptocurrencies?
P.S. Want a quick-start, simple your-grandma-could-do-it guide? Here's a great one!
Am I a bad person to consider using this?
No, Monero is freedom money. You can do whatever you want with it, whenever you want, where ever you want. We make it clear that you should own your wealth 100%. What you do with it, is none of our concern.
Where does the word Monero come from?
The word Monero comes from the language Esperanto. Monero means coin oand currency. The plural way of saying Monero in Esperanto and in our cryptocurrency is Moneroj.
How do I store Monero?
Monero Core
Monero Core GUI (If you don't know how to use it, click here for instructions and tutorial)
Monero Web-Wallet
Offline Wallet Generator
Is there a lightweight wallet for Monero?
Not yet, but you can use the official GUI with a remote node.
Are there any other ways to store Monero (XMR)?
Yes, there are many mobile wallets out there that allow you to store Monero (XMR). We do not recommend them, because they are not official releases of Monero. If you do decide to use other wallets, please make sure to do your research first before storing any Moneroj in the wallet. Anything used for Monero outside of official releases, will be used at your own risk. Some may be used for scamming purposes. If you still decide to take the risk; do not use them for large amounts. Also keep in mind that there is a high chance that Monero support will not be able to help you if you bump into any problems from applications outside of official releases. Why should you not use non-official wallets? Well would you buy a house and give your only key you have to the buildemanagement and wait for him/her to open the door to the house you supposedly own? No. Same goes with cryptocurrencies. You should always have possession of your private keys, and your Moneroj. Most non-official releases own your private keys, therefore you do not own the Moneroj.
How do I buy Monero (XMR) with fiat?
Kraken
Bitfinex
Monero For Cash
Local Monero
Other Options
Which exchanges support Monero (XMR)?
Poloniex
Bithumb
Kraken
Bitfinex
Bittrex
Bitsquare
ShapeShift
Livecoin
BTER
How do I setup a offline cold paper wallet?
Step-by-step guide for cold storage and offline transaction signing with optimal security
Guide For Securely Generating An Offline Cold Paper Wallet
USB Monero Cold Wallet Guide
Is there a Chinese translation so I can understand Monero? 是否有中文翻译,以便我能理解Monero?
Monero (XMR) Chinese Translation
Can I buy Monero (XMR) with CNY? 我可以用人民币买Monero吗?
BTER
*Can I buy Monero (XMR) with KRW?
Bithumb
Where can I find a good mining pool?
Monero Pools
What miner should I use?
CPU:
XMR-Stak (Windows-Linux)
CpuMiner by tpruvot (Windows, Linux)
CpuMiner By Wolf
xmr-stak (MacOS)
cpuminer(MacOS) By correcthorse
GPU:
XMR-stak (AMD)
Ccminer (nVidia) by KlausT, psychocrypt, and fireice-uk
Claymore's CryptoNote GPU Miner (AMD)
If you are a Windows user, click here.
Can I use a proxy for mining?
You can use XMR Proxy. If you want to monitor your rigs you can use Monero Mining Monitor.
How can I setup a local wallet while running node with little bandwidth?
You can use GUI, as a remote node as it uses very little bandwidth. Go to settings tab and change: "localhost:18089" to "node.moneroworld.com:18089". If you are still having problems, then just use our Monero Web-Wallet.
Can I run Monero through Tor or I2P?
Guide to use Monero with Tor correctly
Monero Safety Through Tor
Monero I2P
My vendor only accepts bitcoin but I only have Monero, and I know bitcoin is not private/anonymous. What should I do?
Use XMR.TO, but you should also educate them about bitcoins lack of privacy. Tell them to visit this post.
How long does it take to sync to the blockchain?
It can take from a few hours (using SSD drive) or even 24 hours, depending on hard drive and connection speed.
How do I generate a QR-code for a Monero address?
How to generate a QR code for a Monero address
Moneroqrcode.com for a personalized code
Guide to check balance
List of scams: (Always do a background check / research for anything outside of official releases.)
Did you know over 50 high profile artists accept Monero on their online stores? Check out Project Coral Reef
Are there any other sub-reddits that specialize in certain parts of Monero or just related to Monero?
Yes, there are a few. However, please keep in mind that this sub-reddit (/Monero) is the official Monero sub-reddit.
/xmrtrader - Trading, and investing related discussions & inquires.
/MoneroMining - Mining related discussions & inquires.
/MoneroCommunity for those who want to help grow the community.
/moonero for shitposts and memes.
/MoneroMarket for buying and selling wares for Monero.
/MoneroSupport for, you guessed it, Monero support.
Want to get involved? Click here for a list of sources.
How can I participate in the Monero community?
We welcome everyone to join us and help out. Check the "Community Info" section on our subreddit for our website, forum, stack exchange, github, twitter, and facebook. Anyway, we hope you stick around beyond the hype. Monero has a lot going for it, and we hope you agree! We really need your help, since this project is entirely driven by the community!
Nun vi spertis liberecon.
submitted by cryptonaire- to Monero [link] [comments]

What Is BitCoin Mining? and Should You Mine? How To Mine 1 Bitcoin in 10 Minutes - Blockchain BTC Miner ... How Much Can You Make Mining Bitcoin With 6X 1080 Ti ... Inside a Bitcoin mine that earns $70K a day - YouTube How to Mine Cryptocurrency and Bitcoin on Mac/Windows, using CPU or GPU with MinerGate and NiceHash

Because of low hash rates as compared to the Bitcoin network and efficiencies in the J/MH (Joule per Mega-Hash) range CPU, mining using CPUs became financially unviable (Mining - Bitcoin Wiki ... You should consult this wiki entry to know how many hashes per second can you generate with your hardware. Afterwards, just input the value into a bitcoin mining calculator and you will have an estimation of your payout ratio.. Please note that this calculator does not take difficulty into account so your earned value is likely to change over time. “A recent report suggests that at current prices, Bitcoin miners will consume an estimated 8.27 terawatt-hours per year. That might sound like a lot, but it’s actually less than an eighth of what U.S. data centers use, and only about 0.21 percent of total U.S. consumption. It also compares favorably to the currencies and commodities that bitcoin could help replace: Global production of ... 10000 watts / 1375 watts per miner = roughly 7.2 antminer S9s. According to whattomine.com, S9s are earning roughly 0.00069 BTC every 24 hours.. 7 x 0.00069 = 0.00483. This equates to roughly $18.28 per day. Divide that in half if we're assuming you're running the miners 12 hours out of the day, = $9.14. 1) If you haven't already, download and install/run the Bitcoin core application from www.bitcoin.org. Once downloaded, launch the bitcoin application and wait for the block count to stop increasing in order for your client to be in sync with the network. This process can take a few hours, but you can start mining in the meantime.

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What Is BitCoin Mining? and Should You Mine?

Thanks for watching! For donations: Bitcoin - 1CpGMM8Ag8gNYL3FffusVqEBUvHyYenTP8 Some Helpful Links: • Buy Parts for a Mining Rig: http://amzn.to/2jSSsCz • Download NiceHash Miner: https://www.nicehash.com/?p=nhmintro • Choose a Wallet: h... A somewhat in depth look at what BitCoin mining actually is: More Information on Bitcoin Mining and we are building up to getting your own BitCoin miners setup so you can start mining! Link Dump! The virtual goldrush to mine Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies leads us to Central Washington state where a Bitcoin mine generates roughly $70,000 a day min... On my Mac Pro using a 6 core Xeon CPU from 2012, with Bytecoin it gets 150 hashes which means 1.5 coins per hour, however it eats up an extra 100watts over the computer just being idle.

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